我們為您提供橡膠接頭基本分類,設備結構,性能特點,應用領域,使用安裝,檢驗規則,型號規格,儲存運輸,技術標準,規格參數等資料.
全國服務熱線
18521350330

常見問題

線軸和球形膨脹節的比較

時間: 2019-03-15 17:26 瀏覽次數:


1、四五十年前,所有閥芯式法蘭橡膠膨脹節都是手工制造的,而且許多仍然是今天制造的。手工制造的質量取決于在慢速腳控車床上工作的技術人員,該車床可以轉動適當內徑的形式。該模板具有一個居中的橡膠拱或多個拱形,以形成拱形腔,以及可調節的鋼制法蘭,設置為面對面的尺寸。

Forty or fifty years ago all spool type flanged rubber expansion joints were hand built and many are still being made that way today. Hand built quality depends on a technician working at a slow speed foot controlled lathe that turns a form of the proper inside diameter. The form has a centered rubber arch or multiple arches to form the arch cavities, and adjustable steel flanges that are set for the face-to-face dimension.

2、施工人員首先用橡膠襯里包裹表格,橡膠襯里越過拱門并向上朝向兩側的凸緣以形成管子。連續的橡膠浸漬輪胎簾線層同樣在拱形和凸緣上方進行加工,以開始加固系統。導線在輪胎簾線上螺旋以提供徑向強度,并且該過程持續到未固化的橡膠蓋提供完成。

The builder begins by wrapping the form with a rubber liner that goes over the arch and up the flanges on both sides to form the tube. Successive layers of rubber impregnated tire cord are similarly worked up across the arch and up the flanges to begin the reinforcement system. Wire is spiraled over the tire cord to provide radial strength, and this process is continued until the uncured rubber cover provides the finish.

3、然后將二次鋼模板夾緊到心軸凸緣上以壓縮未固化的橡膠和織物。法蘭之間的主體用尼龍帶包裹,以迫使多層更緊密地接觸。最后,將完整的包裹組件從車床上取下并置于蒸汽室中進行固化,并在硫化后除去心軸,鋼法蘭和包裹物。修剪胎體并在橡膠法蘭上鉆孔以完成制造。

Secondary steel mold plates are then clamped to the mandrel flanges to compress the uncured rubber and fabric. The body between the flanges is wrapped with Nylon tape to force the multiple layers into more intimate contact. Finally the complete wrapped assembly is taken off the lathe and placed in a steam chamber for curing and the mandrel, steel flanges and wrappings are removed after vulcanization. The carcass is trimmed and holes drilled in the rubber flanges to complete fabrication.

4、手工制造的主要優點是相對便宜的工具以及根據特殊需求改變結構,尺寸和材料的能力。我們已經建造了大到12英尺內徑的接頭。這是一個非常昂貴的過程,但是帶有厚壁的手工制造的接頭可以承受工業服務,因為沒有其他商品可以。直壁結構的有趣變化是同心和偏心的減速器系列。長度和直徑變化的變化是無限的,并且在入口處具有12英寸法蘭的減速器,在出口處下降至4英寸并不罕見。

The principal advantages of hand building are relatively inexpensive tooling and the ability to vary construction, size and materials in response to specialized demand. We have built joints as large as 12 feet I.D. This is a slow expensive process, but the heavily walled hand built joints withstand industrial service as no other commodity can. Interesting variations on the straight walled construction are the concentric and eccentric family of reducers. Variations of length and diameter change are infinite and reducers with a 12” flange on the inlet, dropping to 4” on the outlet are not unusual.

5、我們認識到需要另一種低成本的HVAC方法,并關注輪胎行業。輪胎經受陽光和臭氧,雨水,沙漠干燥,熱和冷,以及高頻和沖擊負荷。即使經過多年的使用,它們仍可承受高壓空氣而不會發生泄漏,并且經常翻新,因為墻壁非常堅固。當然,類似的結構最適合HVAC應用中的柔性管道連接器。球形膨脹節已經在海外市場上銷售,并且在美國有限,所以我們的方向是工程改進而不是發明。

We recognized the need for another lower cost approach for HVAC and looked to the tire industry. Tires withstand exposure to sunlight and ozone, rain, desert dryness, heat and cold, as well as high frequency and shock loads. They hold high pressure air without leakage while undergoing extreme flexure, even after many years of service and are often retreaded because the walls stand up so well. It would certainly follow that a similar construction would be most suitable for flexible pipeline connectors in HVAC applications. Spherical expansion joints were already on the market overseas and to a limited extent in the United States, so our direction was engineering improvement rather than invention.

6、制造過程比手動纏繞的接頭簡單得多。所有球形伸縮縫都采用直筒胴體制成。根據膨脹節的類型,管和簾布層以及蓋子被放置在直的心軸上并且輪胎簾線反轉并且繞端部纜索或剛性端環轉回。將直的預制件放置在已經加工成外部形狀的鋼模中,而不是用尼龍手工包裹。心軸已被拆除并由氣囊代替。

The manufacturing process is much simpler than for hand wrapped joints. All spherical expansion joints are built with straight carcasses. The tube and plies, as well as the cover, are laid up on a straight mandrel and the tire cord reversed and turned back around end cables or rigid end rings, depending on the style of expansion joint. The straight preform is placed in a steel mold that has been machined to the outside shape, rather than hand wrapped with Nylon. The mandrel has already been removed and replaced by an air bag.

7、當借助液壓機關閉模具時,會發生兩件事。首先,將端部向后折疊以形成凸起的橡膠凸緣,其與鋼凸緣的凸起面的直徑相同。其次,當氣囊膨脹時,采取球形形狀以迫使胎體抵靠熱鋼壁。代替用于手工制造接頭的蒸汽固化,固化在液壓機中進行,在模具的任一側上具有加熱壓板。在該模塑過程中使用的空氣壓力高于通常通過手工包裝獲得的壓力,因此球形接頭往往比手工包裝設計更均勻。

When the mold is closed with the help of a hydraulic press, two things take place. First, the ends are folded back to form the raised rubber flange, which is the same diameter as the raised face of a steel flange. Second, the spherical shape is taken when the air bag is inflated to force the carcass out against the hot steel walls. Instead of the steam cure that is used for the hand built joints, curing takes place in a hydraulic press with heated platens on either side of the mold. The air pressure used in this molding process is higher than the pressure normally obtained by hand wrapping, so spherical joints tend to be more homogeneous than hand wrapped designs.

8、球形模制膨脹接頭與最終產品中的手工纏繞(線軸型)接頭以及制造方法不同。線軸型接頭從線或鋼環加強件獲得其徑向強度。拱形和橡膠法蘭之間的直端部分是硬橡膠管。沒有剛性加固的關節的唯一部分是拱本身。由于該設計適用于噪音和振動影響不大的工業應用,因此閥芯式伸縮接頭僅適用于運動。拱形結構非常堅固,并且非常堅硬,因此壓力響應的體積幾乎沒有變化。

Spherical molded expansion joints differ from hand wrapped (spool type) joints in the final product as well as the method of manufacture. Spool type joints derive their radial strength from wire or steel ring reinforcement. The straight end sections between the arch and the rubber flanges are stiff rubber pipe. The only part of the joint that is not rigidly reinforced is the arch itself. Since the design is for industrial applications where noise and vibration are of little consequence, spool type expansion joints only address movements. The arch is very heavily reinforced and quite stiff as well, so there is little change in volume in response to pressure.

9、手工包裹的拱門基本上是直壁的,因此當系統加壓時,拱形物像波紋管一樣伸展,在不受約束時會發生故障。如果膨脹節安裝在具有上下兩個錨的管道系統中,則它被包含并且響應于熱膨脹或收縮而表現良好。

Hand wrapped arches are essentially straight walled so when the system is pressurized, the arch stretches like a bellows toward failure when unrestrained. If the expansion joint is installed in a piping system with anchors both up and downstream, it is contained and performs very well in response to thermal expansion or contraction.

10、在HVAC應用中,我們通常處理以其他方式處理的熱運動。安裝膨脹節使安裝更簡單,補償不對中,減輕設備法蘭的應力,補償地震運動,主要是為了防止噪音和振動的傳遞。膨脹節通常安裝在彈簧安裝的設備旁邊,管道也是如此。因此,管道沒有固定,如果使用手動卷繞式伸縮接頭,則需要安裝控制桿以防止伸長失效。一旦控制桿在未固定的情況下使用,壓力推力總是由控制桿承擔,因此控制桿繞過膨脹節并傳遞噪音和振動。

In HVAC applications we are generally dealing with thermal movements that are handled some other way. The expansion joint is installed to make the installation simpler, compensate for misalignment, relieve the equipment flanges of stress, compensate for seismic movement and primarily to prevent the transmission of noise and vibration. The expansion joints are often installed next to equipment that is spring mounted, as is the piping. Therefore, the piping is not anchored, and if hand wrapped spool type expansion joints were used, it would be necessary to install control rods to prevent elongation failure. Once control rods are used in unanchored situations, the pressure thrust is always taken by the control rods so the control rods bypass the expansion joint and transmit both noise and vibration.

11、橡膠法蘭軟管在HVAC應用中使用多年,因為消除拱形使得軟管對伸長率不太敏感。胴體是鋼絲增強的并且在徑向方向上非常堅硬,但是仍然存在拉伸約7%長度的趨勢。雖然軟管不會失敗,拉伸產生其他問題,作為一個36”長的軟管可以拉伸2 1 / 2 ”。由于它幾乎不可能容納2 1 / 2 ”伸長,軟管類似地安裝有上分離的或未錨定的約束系統的桿或線纜。

Rubber flanged hoses were used in HVAC applications for many years, as eliminating the arch made the hose less sensitive to elongation. The carcasses were wire reinforced and quite stiff in the radial direction, but there was still a tendency to stretch about 7% of the length. While the hoses would not fail, the stretching created other problems, as a 36” long hose could stretch 21/2”. Since it is almost impossible to accommodate 21/2” elongation, hoses were similarly installed with restraining rods or cables on isolated or unanchored systems.

12、球形膨脹節設計完全不同。球形膨脹節是球形氣球。當球囊膨脹時,直徑固定在給定壓力下。額外的壓力會使直徑增大到更大但可預測的尺寸。該原理用于球形伸縮縫的設計。我們在球體的兩側切割了兩個孔,并在那些位置切割了法蘭。所產生的特性完全不同于線軸式膨脹節的特性,其中沒有平衡力,并且壓力導致破壞伸長。

Spherical expansion joint designs are entirely different. The spherical expansion joint is a spherical balloon. When a balloon is inflated, the diameter is fixed at a given pressure. Additional pressure will increase the diameter to a larger but predictable dimension. This principal is used in the design of spherical expansion joints. We cut two holes on opposite sides of the sphere and flange at those locations. The resulting characteristics are entirely different than those of the spool type expansion joint where there are no counter balancing forces and the pressure causes elongation to destruction.

13、球形接頭中沒有鋼絲加固。通過從法蘭到法蘭的輪胎簾線橋接來加強球體來承受壓力。每根光纖的裝載方式與炮塔之間懸索橋的主纜相同。懸掛電纜以類似于在膨脹接頭的壁上工作的壓力的方式將道路負載傳遞到主電纜。

There is no steel wire reinforcement in a spherical joint. The pressure is taken by reinforcing the sphere with tire cord bridging from flange to flange. Each fiber is loaded in much the same way as the principal cables of a suspension bridge between turrets. The hanging cables transmit the roadway loading to the main cable in a fashion similar to the pressure working on the wall of the expansion joint.

14、通過改變簾布層的數量并相對于膨脹接頭的軸線設定制造角度,可以控制端部的膨脹和移動。雖然它們是真正的膨脹節,但我們經常將這種球形裝置描述為連接器,因為它們結合了軟管和膨脹節最理想的特性。

By varying the number of ply layers and setting the angle of manufacture in relation to the axis of the expansion joint, the swell and movement of the ends can be controlled. While they are truly expansion joints, we often describe this line of spherical devices as connectors, as they combine the most desirable properties of both hose and expansion joints.

15、球形設計對由壓力產生的推力產生平衡力,使得這些部分在壓力下膨脹到給定的可預測長度。通過這種方式,它們就像軟管一樣,但延伸很小。在未錨定的位置,例如彈簧安裝設備的管道,在壓力下有預測長度的預擴展指令。這可以防止彈簧壓縮或泵或設備基礎的移動。然而,如果引入錨固件,它們可以響應于振動或熱力而被壓縮,延伸,橫向或成角度地移動到比大多數線軸型伸縮接頭更大的程度。

The spherical design develops a balancing force to the thrust generated by the pressure, so that the sections expand to a given predictable length under pressure. In this way they act like hose, but with very little extension. In unanchored locations, such as pipelines to spring mounted equipment, there are pre-extension instructions to the predicted length under pressure. This prevents compression of the springs or shifting of the pump or equipment foundations. However, they can be compressed, extended, moved transversely or angularly in response to vibratory or thermal forces to a greater degree than most spool type expansion joints if anchors are introduced.

16、當我們開始制造球形連接器時,我們相信,后來在各種測試中證明,我們首次使用的設備可以在閥芯式接頭不能時有效降低流體傳輸噪音。球形,特別是雙球形設計的整個胎體響應于由聲音引起的壓力脈動引起的壓力變化而呼吸。當波通過膨脹接頭時,這用于阻尼流體中的這種壓力波。

When we started manufacturing spherical connectors, we believed, and later proved in various tests that for the first time we had a device that would effectively reduce fluid transmitted noise when spool type joints do not. The entire carcass of spherical, and particularly double sphere, designs breathes in response to the changing pressure caused by sound induced pressure pulsations. This serves to damp out this pressure wave in the fluid as the wave passes through the expansion joint.

17、我們不斷修改這些設計,以消除對控制桿或控制電纜的需求。我們最新的系列(Safeflex)非常有效。不需要在所有大小1全壓控制棒1 / 2 ”到14”單和雙球體。在大多數壓力下通過24“也可以省略控制。

We have continually modified these designs to eliminate the need for control rods or control cables. Our very latest series (Safeflex) is extremely effective in doing so. Control rods are not needed at full pressure in all the sizes 11/2” through 14” both single and double sphere. Controls may also be omitted at most pressures through 24”.

18、所有球形伸縮接頭都配有延性或鋼制浮動法蘭,與主體無關。通過一體式法蘭固定在法蘭槽中的嵌入式柔性電纜珠或通過向下壓在剛性外殼鋼環上的開口法蘭來固定主體。它實際上是形成密封的連接器的末端,不需要墊圈。然而,重要的是,球形接頭與固體表面配合,而不是像在唯特利服務中使用的那些空心法蘭。簡單的間隔凸緣可以解決這類問題。

All spherical expansion joints are furnished with ductile or steel floating flanges that are independent of the body. The body is retained either by means of an embedded flexible cable bead held into a flange groove by a one piece flange or by split flanges that bear down on a rigid encased steel ring. It is actually the end of the connector that forms the seal and no gaskets are required. It is important, however, that the spherical joint mates with a solid surface and not a hollow flange such as those used in victaulic service. A simple spacer flange can solve this type of problem.

19、由于鋼或韌性凸緣在每端都是浮動的,因此在安裝這些接頭和排列孔時不會出現問題,并且在安裝過程中不可能出現扭曲變形。法蘭通常鉆至150或300磅。美國的ASA標準,但它們也有DIN,JIN,PIN,韓國,英國E或F以及其他世界標準。

Since the steel or ductile flanges are floating at each end, there is never a problem in installing these joints and lining up the holes and there is no possibility of torsional distortion during installation. Flanges are normally drilled to 150 or 300 Lb. ASA standards in the United States, but they are also available in DIN, JIN, PIN, Korean, British E or F as well as other world standards.

20、由于我們的球形連接器用于噪音和振動,最常用的設備是雙球。在我們的工作中,我們只使用單個球體,其中空間排除了雙重,或者我們的客戶正在使用其他公司的較低規格。3 / 4 ”到2”球形狀與螺紋端部制成。

Because our spherical connectors are used for noise and vibration, the most commonly specified device is the twin sphere. In our work we only use the single sphere where space rules out the double or where our client is working to lesser specifications by other firms. 3/4” through 2” sphericals are made with threaded ends.

Copyright ??上海松夏減震器有限公司 版權所有
全國服務電話:021-60344211 ? 銷售電話:185-2135-0330
公司地址:上海市寶山區城銀路525號

广西快3 开封县| 且末县|